First Balkan War




The First Balkan War, which started on October 4th 1912, pitted the Ottoman army against the Christian populations of the region, who rioted and protested claiming their religious, political and territorial rights. 

With Greece joining the cause, an ultimatum was set forth by Serbia and Bulgaria refuting the legitimacy of the Ottoman Empire and its claim over their lands, and they initiated the hostilities.  The Balkan allies were victorious at Giannitsa on October 20th, 1912 and this set off a series of conquests by the allies, with Constantine assuming the role of Commander of the Greek Army. 

These successes included key Greek acquisitions from the Ottomans, including the great Macedonian city of Salonika on the 27th of October, Ioannina in February of 1913 and other islands (such as Lesvos) in the northern Aegean Sea as a result of the famous Battle of the Dardanelles.         

The Ottoman armies began to visibly retreat from the Balkan regions, thus signaling an end to the First Balkan War.  The war officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of London on May the 17th, 1913.  However, the agreement did not clearly define how the lands would be divided among the three states.  This discord and ambiguity was ample enough opportunity for the Ottomans to once again wage war against their Balkan adversaries.  




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